In Islam, Nikah is as much a social institution as the human race itself. Marriage according to the Quran and Sunnah is most Important for Muslim life. It can be defined as a relationship between a man and a woman that is recognized by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties if both parties enter the union, and in the case of children born from it. Marriage this way has two important functions: it is the means adopted by the human community of people to control the relations between the sexes. It also provides the way the child’s relationship with society is determined.
The Importance of Marriage in Islam
Nikah holds great importance in Islam as it is considered a basic institution that promotes love, companionship, and stability in society. Islam encourages believers to enter into marriage and satisfy their natural desires lawfully and morally rightly. Marriage is seen as a means of protecting oneself from falling into sin.
We were with the Prophet (SAW) while we were young and had no wealth. So Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “O young people! Whoever among you can marry, should marry, because it helps him lower his gaze and guard his modesty (i.e. his private parts from committing illegal sexual intercourse etc.), and whoever is not able to marry, should fast, as fasting diminishes his sexual power.”[Sahih al-Bukhari 5066]
The Concept of Marriage in the Quran
The Holy Quran has indicated various purposes of marriage in many verses. The Quran describes the relationship between spouses as love and mercy.
And one of His signs is that He created for you spouses from among yourselves so that you may find comfort in them. And He has placed between you compassion and mercy. Surely in this are signs for people who reflect. [Surah Ar-Rum verse 21]
Marry off the free singles among you, as well as the righteous of your bondmen and bondwomen. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them out of His bounty. For Allah is All-Bountiful, All-Knowing. [Surah Nur verse 32]
The most important thing in marriage is the Mahr. According to the Holy Quran, mahr is given as a gift by the husband to the wife at the time of marriage. This can take the form of money or kind. It is important to remember that Islam does not intend to create hardship for the couple and the form of dowry should be whatever the groom can afford. Thus, it could be giving a copy of the Holy Quran, a sum of money, paying for the wife’s education in the future, or indeed some jewelry.
In this regard Allah Almighty says;
And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease. [Surah An-Nisa verse 4]
Marriage in the Sunnah
The Sunnah method of Islamic marriage is to perform the marriage in the mosque with simplicity and in the presence of very close relatives. The families of both the bride and groom may feed the people with low income and any travelers who pass by. There is no need to print cards, collect dowry, prepare dozens of gifts, and prepare for the grand Walima celebration for months.
The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) played an important role in shaping the principles and practices of marriage in Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) set an example through his married life. He had multiple wives, and each marriage had a specific purpose, such as establishing a union, caring for widows, or setting an example for the community. His marriages demonstrated the flexibility and diversity within Islamic marriage, while also highlighting the importance of fulfilling the rights and responsibilities of each spouse.
Narrated by Ibn Abbas:
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “There is nothing like marriage, for two who love one another.”[Sunan Ibn Majah 1847]
Rights and Responsibilities of Spouse
In Islam, spouses have rights and responsibilities towards each other. These rights and responsibilities are based on the principles of love, kindness, and mutual respect. Each spouse has the right to be treated with respect and dignity within the marriage. Spouses have the right to equal treatment in marriage, equal say in decision-making, and equal access to resources. Spouses have the right to expect fidelity and fidelity from each other.
Narrated by Hakim bin Muawiyah, from his father:
A man asked the Prophet(SAW): “What are the rights of the woman over her husband?” He said: “That he should feed her as he feeds himself and clothe her as he clothes himself; he should not strike her on the face nor disfigure her, and he should not abandon her except in the house (as a form of discipline).” (Hassan)[Sunan Ibn Majah 1850]
Spouses have the responsibility to communicate honestly and share their thoughts. Both spouses have a responsibility to contribute to household chores and financial obligations. Both have the responsibility to respect each other.
Importance of Love and Compassion in Marriage
Love and compassion are essential elements in a successful and fulfilling marriage. Love and compassion play an important role in building a strong bond between spouses and promoting a healthy and supportive relationship. It is spouses that allow them to understand each other feelings, desires, and needs. Love and compassion are extremely important elements in a successful and satisfying marriage. They play an important role in building a strong bond between spouses and helping increase a healthy and supportive relationship.
Divorce in Islam
Islam recognizes different types of divorce, including talaq (divorce started by the husband), khula (divorce started by the wife), and faskh (divorce granted by a religious authority or court).
In Islam, a husband says the phrase “I divorce you” (in Arabic, talaq) to his wife. A man can divorce his wife three times, taking her back after the first two. After the third divorce, they cannot be together unless he marries someone else.
Islam teaches us the beauty of marriage. It teaches us that a happy marriage is the union of two good forgivers willing to make the worst the best. It teaches us to create an opportunity to come across another human being in our lives and see them with fresh eyes and a yearning heart that will passionately choose them every day.
Islam marriage promotes mutual love, mercy, and companionship, and encourages spouses to treat each other with kindness and respect. It emphasizes shared responsibilities, family values, and the importance of resolving conflicts through open communication and mediation when needed. Islamic marriage sees itself as a means to attain spiritual growth, happiness, and fulfillment in this life and the hereafter.