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  5. Conquest of Makkah: A Revelation of Faith and Forgiveness

Conquest of Makkah: A Revelation of Faith and Forgiveness

The Conquest Of Makkah
The Conquest of Mecca marked the fulfillment of God’s promise, granting Muslims power. It brought victory over the Quraysh polytheists, solidifying Islam’s dominance. The peninsula’s mightiest military force emerged, leading to widespread conversion to Islam and yielding significant religious, political, and social benefits for Mecca.

The Prophet (SAW) was born in Makkah and loved the city immensely. It was the city of his forefather, Ibrahim (peace be upon him). But it was the tyrant Quraysh who forced him to leave the city. The Prophet (SAW) said as he left Makkah for the Migration:

By Allah! You are the most beloved land of Allah for me and for Allah. Had your people not expelled me, I would never have left. But Allah promised His Beloved that he would return to Makkah: (Mishkat al-Masabih 2725)

Verily, He who has given you (O Muhammad) the Qur’an will surely return you to the place of return (namely Makkah) (Quran 28: 85)

This promise was fulfilled on the occasion of Fatah Makkah, in the eighth year of Hijrah.

Background

In the month of Dhul Qadah, 6th Hijri (628 CE), the Quraysh of Makkah and the Muslims of Medinah signed a ten-year truce called the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah
(Sulah Hudaybiayah). Despite the improved relations between Makkah and Madinah after the signing of the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, the peace was broken by the Quraysh of Makkah and their allies, the tribe of Bani Bakr, who attacked the tribe of Khuzaah. Khuzaah were allies of the Muslims, and when the Prophet (SAW) heard of the attack, He (Peace be Upon Him) immediately ordered his companions to prepare for war.

Mobilizing the Army

On the 10th Ramadhaan, 8 A.H., the Muslim army proceeded from Madinah to Makkah, determined to conquer that city and take the holy Haram, which Allah declared for all mankind. This army had more men than Madinah had ever seen before. The tribes of Sulaym, Musainah, Ghatafan, and others joined the Muhajireen and Ansaars in such numbers and with such weapons that the wide expanse of the desert was filled with them.

They moved fast, and at every station, many more tribes joined their ranks and added to their weaponry and equipment. Every soul was filled with the faith of Islam and had no doubt that Allah’s help would bring victory. Rasulullah (SAW) led this army at the forefront. His greatest concern was to seize the holy Ka’bah without shedding any unnecessary Blood. By the time the army arrived at Zahraan, 8 kilometers from Makkah, its number had reached 10,000. Until then
The kuffar of Makkah knew nothing about the advancing army.

Prophet’s (SAW) Instruction to his Army

The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) had issued a directive to the Muslims, instructing them not to inflict harm unless confronted by individuals attempting to obstruct their entry into Makkah. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be Upon Him) had instructed his Commanders to enter Makkah only to fight those who resisted them, except for four men and two women who were to be killed even if they were found beneath the curtains of the Kaaba. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Saad Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl, and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid.

Peaceful entry of the Muslim Army into Makkah

There were four entry routes to Makkah through passes in the hills. These were from the north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be Upon Him) divided the Muslim army into four groups, one to advance through each pass. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) entered Makkah on his favorite camel, Al-Kaswa, with Usama Ibn Zaid (R.A.) sitting behind him. On his way, he recited Surah Al-Fatha (the 48th Surah of the Quran).

The Muslim army entered Makkah on Monday, the 18th Ramadan, the 8th Hijrah. The entry was peaceful and bloodless on three routes to Makkah except for that of a group of Muslim Army commanded by Khalid ibn Al-Walid (R.A.). The rigid anti-Muslims like Ikrimah and Sufwan gathered fighters from the infields of Quraysh and faced Khalid’s group of Muslims. The Quraish attacked the Muslims with swords and bows, and the Muslims charged the Quraysh’s positions. However, after a short battle, the Quraish gave ground after losing twelve men. Muslim losses were two warriors.

Amnesty

On the day of conquering Makkah, a thousand armored soldiers entered Mecca with the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). When Sa’d ‘Ubada passed with the banner of the Prophet (SAW) in front of Abu Sufyan, he shouted, “O Abu Sufyan! Today is the day of spilling blood, and God will humiliate Quraysh.” When the Prophet (SAW) reached Abu Sufyan,
Abu Sufyan said, “Have you ordered to kill your relatives? May I ask you by God about your own people, and you are the most benevolent and affiliative among people?” The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) said, Today is the day of mercy. Today is the day God makes Quraysh faithful and honorable.”

Then, the Prophet (SAW) ordered Hazrat’Ali (a) to take the banner from Sa’d bin Ubada After the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) stood at the door of Ka’ba and granted amnesty to all. He turned to the elders of Quraysh and said, “What do you say now?” They said, “Goodness! You are our brother and nephew who have come to power.” The Prophet (SAW) said, “But I say what my brother Joseph (a) told his brothers; that today you are not admonished. May God forgive you, for He is the most Merciful of all the merciful.”

Abu Sufiyan was forgiven

On the day of the conquest of Makkah, even Abu Sufiyan, who was sure that he would not be forgiven, was forgiven by the Prophet (SAW).The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) asked Abu Sufian why he embraced Islam. Abu Sufiyan replied that the gods of Makkah had proved powerless and that there was indeed “no god but Allah” (the first pillar of Islam). Because Abu Sufyan was the present chief of Quraish and has become Muslim, the Messenger of Allah (SAW) declared Abu Sufyan’s house a sanctuary and said:
“Even he Who enters the house of Abu Sufyan will be safe; He who lays down arms will be safe, He who locks his door will be safe”.

The Key of the Ka’ba

After the Conquest Of Makkah, the Prophet (SAW) sought permission from the keyholder, Uthman ibn Talha, to enter the Ka’ba. Uthman’s impolite refusal prompted the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) to calmly predict a day when the key would be in his hands, bestowed upon whomever he chose. During the Conquest of Makkah, Uthman handed over the key to the Prophet (SAW). Recalling the earlier exchange, the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) asked if Uthman remembered his prophecy. Uthman affirmed, bearing witness to Muhammad’s prophethood. The Prophet (SAW) declared that not only was he receiving the key, but it would remain with Uthman’s descendants until Judgment Day. The key’s possession by others would be an act of great injustice. To this day, Uthman’s lineage continues to hold the key as a symbol of their unique heritage.

Prophet (SAW) Broke Idols in Kaaba

There were 360 idols inside the Kaaba, representing the different pagan Arab gods. Pictures of the Prophet Abrahim (A.S.) and his son, Prophet Ismail (A.S.) and of
Angels were posted on the walls of Kaaba. The Prophet (S.A.W.), after obliterating these pictures, broke all idols. The idol of Hubal, the so-called god of Makkah. The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) or Ali ibn Talib (R.A.) as it was fixed at a high place. The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) made Ali (R.A.) stand on his shoulders to break it. Not one person from the whole of Makkah came forward to stop Mohammad (SAW) from breaking their gods.

Lessons from the Conquest of Makkah

Universal Pardon

The Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) as a mercy is not just a cliché but a reality (Haqqa). It was not just a title or tagline, but his inherent nature. In the most decisive moment, Allah gave the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) victory over his enemies. But the Prophet chose to forgive, thereby giving all of mankind a perfect example of goodness, truthfulness, nobility, and compassion.

Force without violence

The Makkans trembled in fear when they saw the Muslims approaching the city. They were overcome by the Ru’b (awe) of the Prophet. Yet he did not display violence.

Success without bloodshed

Sahl ibn Ibāda was one of the commanders of the smaller units ordered to enter Makkah. He had the false impression that the time had come to conquer the city forcefully and take revenge for the atrocities Quraysh had committed. He said:

Today, Sa’d has lied. Today, is the day of mercy, the day when Allah will give grace to the Ka’ba.

Winning hearts and minds

The Prophet (SAW) immediately relieved him of his command and instated his son Qays ibn Sa’d. He remarked: Even the ones who became Muslims late on turned out to be dedicated servants of Islam.

Always praise Allāh

Allah says in Surah al-Nasr. When comes the help of Allah and the conquest? And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion in crowds. So glorify the praise of Allah and ask for His forgiveness. Verily, He is the one who accepts forgiveness.

Here is our blog on Istighfar to ask for forgiveness، click on the given link: Doing Istighfar – The Secret of Astaghfirullah

Cofornsequences

The Conquest Of Makkah, the promise of God for Muslims to achieve power was fulfilled. Makkah was seized by Muslims, and the polytheists of the Quraysh were defeated forever. By the time of the conquest of Mecca, the greatest military force in the peninsula had been formed, and no tribe or tribal unit was able to stand against it. After a while, almost all of the peninsula turned to Islam. This conquest had great religious, political, and social fruits for Makkah.

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