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Online Quran Academy - Islamic Mentors

Khutba Hajjatul Wida: Key Points of Last Sermon

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Introduction

The Hajjatul Wida (the Farewell Pilgrimage) is a unique and significant Islamic event. It marked the last pilgrimage to Prophet Muhammad (SAW). During this journey, he (SAW) delivered the Last Sermon, a complete message with Islam’s core principles.

Allah Almighty says in the Quran,

Surah Al-Maidah verses 3 highlight the completion of the islamic principles during Khutba Hajjatul Wida.
“Today I have perfected your faith for you, completed My favour upon you, and chosen Islam as your way.” (Surah Al-Maidah – 3)

This verse is the most significant. It was revealed on the day of Arafat during the Prophet Muhammad’s Last Sermon. It marks the completion of the Islamic faith and the perfection of Allah’s (SWT) blessings upon the believers.

The Hajjatul Wida, an essential moment in Islamic history, highlighted the sacredness of life, property, and honor. It also guided the performance of Hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca. The Last Sermon’s teachings significantly impacted the practice of Hajj, making it more than just a religious duty.

The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) includes essential lessons like reliance on Allah (SWT), patience, gratitude, and repentance. For more information about this lesson, visit the Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).


Circumstances of the Last Sermon

The Last Sermon was delivered in the Valley of Arafat, near the plain of Mount Arafat, during the Hajjatul Wida (The Farewell Pilgrimage) in the year 10 AH (632 CE). It took place on the 9th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. This location is significant because Arafat is an important site during Hajj, where pilgrims gather to pray and seek forgiveness.

For more information about the Day of Arafat, a Hajj ritual, visit this blog post: The Day of Arafat—A Moment of Mercy for All Muslims.


The Gathering

During this pilgrimage, the Muslim Ummah gathered in large numbers. Calculations suggest that over 100,000 Muslims were present to hear the Prophet’s (SAW) words. This gathering was one of the largest in Islam’s early history, symbolizing the unity and strength of the Muslim community.


Historical Context

The sermon was delivered near the end of the Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) life. Islam had spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula, uniting the crews under the belief in one God. The message of Islam was firmly established, and the community had grown significantly. The Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) health was falling, and this pilgrimage was known to be his last.


Content of the Last Sermon

The Khutba Hajjatul Wida of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) contained much guidance and instructions on many issues. It is a great khutbah; we should all pay attention to its message and guidance. The following are the essential points mentioned in this khutbah:

After praising and glorifying Allah (SWT), the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said:

“Listen! Perhaps this year is the last opportunity for you and me to be present at this gathering together.”


Protection of Life, Property and Honor

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) highlighted the sanctity of human life, declaring it sacred except by the way of justice. He (SAW) said:

“O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds.”


Equality of All Humans

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) stressed the equality of all human beings, regardless of race, color, or status. He (SAW) declared that no Arab is superior to a non-Arab, and no non-Arab is superior to an Arab. He (SAW) said:

“All human beings are from Adam and Eve. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab; a white has no superiority over a black, nor does a black have any superiority over a white; none have superiority over another except by piety and good action.”


Rights of Women

The Prophet (SAW) stressed the importance of treating women with kindness and respect, highlighting their rights and duties. He (SAW) stated:

“O People, it is true that you have certain rights about your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right, then the right to be fed and clothed in kindness belongs to them. Treat your women well and be kind to them; they are your partners and committed helpers.”

For more information about women’s rights in Islam, visit this blog post: Empowering Women in Islam: Rights, Roles, and Dignity.


Prohibition of Usury (Riba)

The Prophet (SAW) prohibited the practice of usury (interest):

“All dues of interest (riba) shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.”

This directive aims to eliminate financial exploitation and promote economic justice.

For more information about riba in Islam, visit this blog post: Riba (Interest) in Islam.


Finality of Nubuwwah

“Listen! After me, there will be no prophet, and no new nation will arise. Understand this well! Worship your Lord, perform the five daily prayers, observe fasting during Ramadan, give Zakat joyfully, perform the pilgrimage to the House of Allah, and obey your rulers. The reward for this is that you will enter the Paradise of your Lord.”

For further information, please visit this blog post: Nubuwwah in Islam: Prophethood of Muhammad (SAW).


Adherence to the Quran and Sunnah

The Prophet (SAW) instructed the Muslims to hold firmly to the Quran and his teachings to avoid going astray:

“I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my Sunnah, and if you follow these, you will never go astray.”


Witnessing to the Divine Message

In a narration by Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah (RA), it is reported that after delivering a sermon, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) asked the people: “What will you say if you are asked about me?” The people replied, “We will testify that indeed you conveyed the message, fulfilled the trust, and gave counsel.” Then the Prophet (peace be upon him) raised his index finger towards the sky and gestured towards the people, saying, “O Allah, bear witness! O Allah, bear witness!” He repeated this three times. [Muslim]

The khutba Hajjatul Wida remains a guiding document for Muslims. It summarises the core values of justice, equality, and respect for human life and property. It reminds Muslims of their ethical and moral responsibilities.


Significance of the Last Sermon in Hajj

The Last Sermon is significant during the Hajj because it highlights the spiritual and moral aspects of this holy journey. It represents the peak of the Hajj, bringing together the key values of honesty, kindness, and togetherness that are important for the Hajj and all of Islam.


Spiritual and Ethical Ethos of Hajj

  • Equality and Unity: Hajj emphasizes that we are all equal before Allah (SWT). As pilgrims, we wear simple Ihram garments, which strip away social distinctions and remind us of our shared humanity. The khutba Hajjatul Wida teaches us that piety and good deeds are the only true measures of worth.
  • Self-Reflection and Repentance: Hajj is a journey of self-reflection and seeking forgiveness. During this time, we are encouraged to look inward, seek Allah’s (SWT) forgiveness, and desire to live righteously. The Last Sermon echoes this, urging us to fulfill our obligations and live ethically.
  • Fair Treatment: The sermon calls for just and fair treatment of others. This serves as a moral compass, guiding us to act righteously and uphold justice in our dealings with others.

Reinforcing Duties

  • Towards Allah (SWT): The sermon reminds us of our core obligations towards Allah (SWT), highlighting the importance of prayer, fasting, and charitythe pillars of Islam that we physically pass during Hajj.
  • Towards Ourselves: We are encouraged to live a life of good character. Passages charging usury and reminding us of the sacredness of life guide us toward moral conduct.
  • Towards Each Other: Hajj fosters a sense of a global Muslim community. The Last Sermon emphasizes the concept of brotherhood, reminding us of our responsibility towards fellow believers. This strengthens the bonds of unity formed during Hajj.

Impact on the Pilgrimage: By delivering the khutba Hajjatul Wida during Hajj, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) ensured his message deeply impacted us as pilgrims. The physical and spiritual experience of Hajj becomes a powerful reminder of the sermon’s teachings. When we return home, we carry a continued connection to Allah (SWT) and a stronger sense of social responsibility and commitment to a just and equitable society.


Implications of the Sermon for Modern Muslims

As Muslims, the Last Sermon delivered during Hajjatul Wida holds deep significance for us today. Let’s break it down into how it speaks directly to us:

Universal Brotherhood: Remembering the equality of all Muslims, regardless of their background, encourages us to welcome everyone in our community. Irrespective of our origin, language, or social status, we are all equal in the eyes of Allah (SWT).

Social Justice: The call for justice and fairness resonates deeply in our hearts, urging us to stand against oppression and inequality wherever we see it. Whether fighting poverty or advocating for human rights, the teachings of the Last Sermon inspire us to be agents of positive change in our communities.

Women’s Rights: As Muslims, we are reminded of the Prophet’s Muhammad (SAW) emphasis on the rights and dignity of women. This means ensuring that our sisters, mothers, and daughters are treated with respect and given equal opportunities in all aspects of life.

Ethical Conduct: The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) taught us to be honest and kind to everyone. We should always do the right thing, whether being truthful in business or helping someone in need. By being good people, we can make our communities better.

During the Hajj, we can deepen our connection with these principles by approaching the rituals with focus and respect, considering their spiritual significance. By integrating these teachings into our lives, we can achieve greater spiritual fulfillment and positively impact others.


Conclusion

The Last Sermon during Hajjatul Wida holds a timeless significance in Islamic belief and practice. It serves as a foundational guide for Muslims worldwide, emphasizing core principles such as sincerity, compassion, and unity, which remain essential aspects of Islamic teachings.

As Muslims, it is important to regularly revisit and reflect on these teachings and incorporate them into our daily lives and personal faith journeys. We can work together to create a fair and compassionate society by upholding the values that Prophet Muhammad (SAW) emphasized in his final sermon. In his sermon, He (SAW) called on us to treat each other with kindness, fairness, and respect, regardless of our differences. By demonstrating these principles, showing mercy to those in need, standing up for justice, and promoting unity, we can honor the Prophet’s (SAW) message and positively impact the world.

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