Haqooq ul Ibad / Introduction
Haqooq ul Ibad is the duty we owe to humanity and there are rights and responsibilities in Islam for every soul on another. This refers to the rights of individuals in Islam. These rights include the right to life, property, education, and fair treatment under the law. Haqooq ul Ibad also includes the protection of one’s dignity and respect and the right to freedom of religion. In Islam, all human beings are considered equal and deserving of respect and dignity. It is the responsibility of Muslims to ensure that huqooq ul ibaad are protected and upheld. This includes treating all individuals with kindness and compassion, regardless of their race, or social status.
Haqooq Allah and Haqooq ul Ibad
Huqooq-ul Allah and Huqooq-ul Ibad are the two most important aspects in a life of a Muslim to complete his faith. A Muslim who fulfils the Huqool-ul Allah will also fulfill Huqooq-ul Ibad, these are two different things but still intertwined. In Quran Allah has mentioned His Rights and Rights of fellow beings together in many verses.
And ˹remember˺ when We took a covenant from the children of Israel ˹stating˺, “Worship none but Allah; be kind to parents, relatives, orphans and the needy; [Surah Baqarah Ayat 83]
speak kindly to people; establish prayer; and pay alms-tax.” But you ˹Israelites˺ turned away—except for a few of you—and were indifferent. [Surah Baqarah Ayat 83]
Righteousness is not in turning your faces towards the east or the west. Rather, the righteous are those who believe in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Books, and the prophets; (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:177)
who give charity out of their cherished wealth to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:177)
pay alms-tax, and keep the pledges they make; and who are patient in times of suffering, adversity, and in ˹the heat of˺ battle. It is they who are true ˹in faith˺, and it is they who are mindful ˹of Allah˺. (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:177)
List of Haqooq ul Ibad in Islam
There are two categories of Huqooq ul Ibaad
Rights of Muslims over another Muslim
Rights of other people to us
A-Rights of Muslims over another Muslim
These are the most significant haqooq ul ibad for Muslims over other Muslims:
- Reply to his Salam
- Visit his sick Muslim brother
- Attend the funeral of his Muslim Brother
- Accept his invitation
- Reply when he sneezes and praise Allah
In general, all belongings of a Muslim are sacred to his brother: his blood, his property, and his honor. A Muslim brother has rights and responsibilities in Islam over others he enjoins goods forbids evil to others and keeps all the promises he made to them.
B-Rights of other people (Humanity as a general) on us
1-Rights of Our beloved Prophet on us
One of the most important huqooq ul ibaad that our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) has on us is to believe in him as the final messenger of Allah, follow his guidance and defend his honor. We should also love him more than ourselves, convey his message to others, respect him and his family, and send blessings upon him. Whenever we hear his name, we should feel joy and gratitude, and be loyal to his companions and followers, and oppose those who oppose him.
2-Rights of Parents
Islam ranks the obedience to Parents second only to God. Our parents are most deserving when it comes to fulfilling the haqooq ul ibad. The extent to which one has to regard his parents and obey them is peculiar only to Islam. None shall even raise his voice higher than the voice of his parents. Nor look towards them even eye to eye – nor walk in advance of them – nor address them with their names. Nothing shall be done to bring disrepute or blame on them from the people. For believing parents, children should pray for their salvation; for non-believing parents, gently encourage them toward the right beliefs and goodness. Parents have rights over all our belongings.
3-Rights of Orphans
The rights and responsiblities of orphans are sacred in Islam. You should not abuse your authority over them, nor take their wealth unlawfully, nor exchange their valuable things with your worthless ones. We should treat them with compassion and justice, whether they are related to us or not. You should also fulfill their rights of huqooq ul ibaad, which are the duties that you owe to other human beings, such as respect, kindness, and cooperation. We must include the orphans in our events of happiness, like Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha.
4-Rights of our Neighbors
We should know who our neighbors are, be kind and nice to them, never make loud noises in our home to disturb them, watch their property when they are not around, share food and gifts with them, and help them in any way if they need one, join in their happiness and sorrow, Do not peek in their houses and safeguard their privacy.
Do not be curious about their personal and family life. There is a hadith of when Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was asked, “Who is the best Muslim?” He replied, “He is the one from whose hand and tongue all Muslims are safe (Sahih Bukhari)
5-Rights of Husband on Wife
Haqooq ul ibad, or the rights of people, are an important aspect of Islam. Islam teaches that a wife should respect and fulfill the rights of her husband, as well as the rights of Allah. According to teachings of Quran and Sunnah about the marriage in Islam, the rights of a husband on his wife are:
- She should protect her honor and his property, and not reveal his secrets to anyone.
- She should respond to his sexual needs, unless she has a valid excuse, and not deny him intimacy.
- She should not allow anyone into his house without his permission, unless it is an emergency.
- She should not leave the house without his permission, unless it is necessary or he allows her.
- She should raise their children according to Islamic teachings and values, and nurture them with love and care.
- She should love him, respect him, and support him in good and bad times.
- She should also respect his relatives and friends, and treat them kindly.
- She should overlook his faults and mistakes, and forgive him for his shortcomings.
- She should not insult him, humiliate him, or argue with him in public or private.
- She should not be greedy or demanding, and be content with what he provides for her.
By fulfilling these rights, a wife can earn the pleasure of Allah and her husband, and strengthen their marital bond. A wife should also remember that her husband has rights over her that are similar to her rights over him, and that they should treat each other with justice and mercy. Indeed, fulfilling these huqooq ul ibaad, we as Muslims can have greater positive impact on our lives.
6-Rights of Wife on Husband
The rights of a wife on her husband are derived from the Quran and the Sunnah, and they include the following:
- Providing for her financial needs, such as housing, food, health care, clothing, etc.
- Paying her the agreed-upon dowry (mahr) as a gift and a sign of respect.
- Not obliging her to work outside the home or to contribute to the household expenses, unless she voluntarily agrees to do so.
- Treating her with kindness, compassion, and respect, and not disclosing her faults or secrets to others.
- Maintaining good relations with her family and relatives, and allowing her to visit them and receive them.
- Helping her with the domestic chores, and spending quality time with her.
- Showing her a cheerful and pleasant attitude, and expressing love and affection for her.
These rights are part of the broader concept of haqooq ul ibad, or the rights of fellow human beings, which Islam emphasizes as a way of worshiping Allah and attaining His pleasure.
7-Rights of Children on Parents
Islam teaches us to respect the rights of people, or huqooq ul ibaad. One of these rights is the right of our children to have good parents. As parents, we have several duties towards our children, such as:
- Providing them with the best education possible, both Islamic and worldly, so that they can grow up as knowledgeable and faithful Muslims.
- Treating them with love and affection, and teaching them Islamic etiquette at a very young age.
- Spending time with them, and taking care of their emotional needs when they are growing up.
- Watching what they see and do and who their friends are, and guiding them to avoid harmful influences.
- Participating in their physical activities, and encouraging them to be healthy and active.
- Helping and guiding them in finding good spouses for them, but never forcing our choice on them. We should respect their opinions and preferences, and support their decisions.
- Never cursing them, or abusing them verbally or physically.
- Treating all children, boys or girls, equally in terms of love and gifts.
By fulfilling these duties, we will not only earn the pleasure of Allah and His forgiveness, but also raise righteous children who will be a source of happiness for us in this world and the hereafter.
8-Rights of Inheritors among each other
Make sure inheritors do not cheat each other, like the elder brother usurping the younger brother’s share of inheritance or brothers depriving sisters of their share of inheritance, etc.
9-General Rights of every person on other Human being
All human beings have a right to be safe from him by his tongue, and hand and from his injustice, inequality, backbiting, slandering, insulting, hatred, bloodshed, jealousy, spying, oppression, humiliation, lies, deception, cheating, and violating their honor and disrespecting their religion, keep the promise to your fellow being, if you are in a position to deliver justice, whether a judge, boss, father, teacher, must deliver justice even if it goes against you, your parents.
10-Rights of Relatives
Islam also protects the rights of relatives, and Muslims are given specific responsibilities regarding relatives. Never break a relationship with them even if they break up with you or are not nice to you. If they are poor, they have more rights to your Zakat and charity than other people, Always participate in their happiness and sorrow. Visit them if they are sick and help them the best you can in their needs, Sila-e-rahmi (keeping good relations with blood relatives (includes, including laws) is an order from Allah, not a recommendation, and every Muslim must obey this order.
11-Right of Guest over Host
Haqooq ul Ibad in Hospitality: The host should respect the rights of his guests and provide them with a comfortable and welcoming environment in his home. He should offer them the best of what he has, such as food, drink, and other facilities.
12-Right of Host over Guest
Rights and resposiblities of a host over his guest are also protected in Islam. The host should not overstay unnecessarily, and bring gifts to the host. The Guest should try his best not to disrupt the host’s daily routine of life/work.
13-Rights of Employees over Employer
Employers must treat all employees with fairness, and equality and without any sort of discrimination, religion, ethnicity, race, nationality, etc. Must pay their wages on time as agreed upon, and follow all local and government laws during their break, and lunch times. Give them time off to perform religious obligations; do not overburden them in their work etc.
14-Rights of Employer on Employees
Employees must perform the work according to the agreed contract, Do not take extra time in breaks and lunch than agreed upon. Never steal stuff from an employer’s business. Be loyal to them as they are a source of their livelihood through Allah.
15-Rights of our Friends on us
Friends have rights over us we should treat them nicely, help them in need, if they are going stray, guide them. Do not backbite or slender them. Keep their secrets, respect their parents and friends, fulfill promises made to them, help reconcile any disagreement/fight among all our other friends, do not take sides unjustly among different friends, and try to be just to all of them.
Finally, one more right, which we mostly overlook, the Quran
(The ultimate guidance to all humanity, a great gift from Allah to us) has also some rights and responsibilities in Islam. There are 4 distinct rights the Quran has over us.
- Read it.
- Understand and ponder over it.
- Implement it in our life.
- Spread its message to everybody.
It is mentioned by our beloved Prophet that the Quran will be a witness for you or against you in front of Allah on the day of Resurrection. Also, the Quran says in Surah Furqan, Ayat 30 “And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Surely my people deserted this Quran [neither learned, nor acted upon it]” We must make sure especially as Muslims to fulfill the rights and responsibilities in Islam of the Quran over us.
In conclusion, Haqooq ul Ibad is the rights and responsibilities owed to humanity in Islam. This is the fundamental principle that emphasizes the equal importance of treating fellow human beings with kindness, compassion, and respect alongside fulfilling religious duties. While Haqooq Allah can be forgiven through repentance, Huqooq ul Ibaad necessitates seeking forgiveness from those we may have wronged. This concept emphasizes strong family bonds, respecting neighbors, upholding marital commitments, nurturing friendships, and ensuring justice and equality. Moreover, the Quran, as the ultimate guide, demands our attention and dissemination of its teachings. Recognizing Haqooq-ul Ibad is essential for a fulfilling Islamic life, promoting harmony, and building a just, compassionate society.